Thursday, May 16, 2019

Burma Religion (Burma) Essay

Since the Myanmar ancient times, in that respect has been full freedom of faith for followers of Burma religions in Myanmar. So many different religions can be in force(p) in Myanmar. Buddhism is practiced by almost 90 portion of Myanmar religion Burmas population, with the Myanmar Theravada Buddhism School being the most prevalent. It has a firm hold in Myanmars enculturation along with an observance of animism, or the worship of ancestors (nat). In Myanmar culture, there argon many Myanmar festivals and celebrations held that correlate with nat. Nat also has influence on the practice of Myanmar traditional euphony in Myanmar religion Burma. There are other religions in Myanmar, but they are not as widespread as Buddhism and animism. Some of the beliefs found include Christianity (Baptists) in Myanmar hill areas and Islamics. Christianity is practiced by 5.5 percent of Burmese Myanmar, Islam by 3.8 percent Hinduism by 0.5 percent and Animism by 0.2 percent before respectivel y in Myanmar. Myanmar is a predominantly Theravada Buddhistic country.Buddhism reached Myanmar around the beginning of the Christian era, mingling with Hinduism (also imported from India) and indigenous animism in Myanmar. The Pyu and Mon kingdoms of the first millennium were Buddhist, but the early Burmese Myanmar peoples were animists. According to Myanmar religion Burma traditional history, Myanmar King Anawrahta of Bagan espouse Buddhism in 1056 and went to war with the Mon kingdom of Thaton in the south of Myanmar country in order to obtain the Buddhist Canon and learned Myanmar monks in Myanmar religion history. The spectral Myanmar tradition created at this time, and which continues to the present day in Myanmar, is a syncretalist mix of what might be termed pure Buddhism (of the Sri Lankan or Theravada school) with deep-rooted elements of the original animism or nat-worship and pull down strands of Hinduism and the Mahayana tradition of northern India.Islam reached Myanm ar at approximately the same time, but never gained a foothold distant the geographically marooned seaboard running from recent Bangladesh southwards to the delta of the Ayeyarwady (modern Rakhine, known previously to the British as Arakan, and an independent kingdom until the eighteenth snow) Myanmar. The colonial result saw a huge influx of Muslim (and Hindu) Indians into Yangon and other Myanmarcities, and the majority of Yangons many mosques and tabernacles owe their origins to these immigrants. Christianity was brought to Myanmar by European missionaries in the 19th century.It make little if any headway among Myanmar Buddhists, but has been widely adopted by non-Buddhists such as the Karen and Kachin in Myanmar. The Chinese contribution to Myanmars religious mix has been slight, but several traditional Myanmar Chinese temples were ceremonious in Yangon and other Myanmar large cities in the nineteenth century when large-scale Chinese migration was encouraged by the British . Since approximately 1990 this migration has resumed in huge make senses, but the modern Chinese immigrants seem to have little stakes in Myanmar religion Burma. Some more(prenominal) isolated indigenous peoples in the more inaccessible part of Myanmar country still follow traditional animism.The Roman Catholic Church, Myanmar Baptist Convention and the Assemblies of God of Myanmar are the largest Christian denominations in Myanmar.There are no totally reliable demographic statistics form Myanmar, but the pursuance is one estimate of the religious composition of Myanmar countryBuddhists 87%Animists 5%Christians 4.5%Muslims 4%Hindus 1.5%Burma ArtsJamie Therese JainarThe culture of Myanmar has been heavily influenced by Buddhism. More recently, British imperialism has influenced aspects of Burmese culture, such as language and education.More recently, British imperialism has influenced aspects of Burmese culture, such as language and education. Its neighbors, particularly India, China, and Thailand, have made major contributions to Myanmar culture. In morerecent times, British colonial rule and westernisation have influenced aspects of Burmese culture, including language and education. Historically, Burmese art and lit was based on Buddhist or Hindu cosmology and myths. In addition to the traditional humanities are silk weaving, pottery, tapestry making, gemstone engraving, and gold leaf making. Temple architecture is typically of brick and stucco, and pagodas are very much covered with layers of gold leaf while monasteries tend to be built of wood. Although court culture has been extinguished, customary street-level culture is vibrant and thriving.Drama is the mainstay of this culture, and just about any celebration is a nice excuse for a pwe (show). Performances may recount Buddhist legends, or be more light-hearted entertainments involving slapstick comedy, dance, tout ensemble singing or giant puppets. Myanmar music is an integral part of a pwe it originates from Thai and emphasizes rhythm and melody. Instruments are predominantly percussive and include drums, boat-shaped harps, gongs and bamboo flutes. The toys of Myanmar are not only for the children but also famous in the world, known as the Marionettes (or) Puppets of Myanmar. Its a combination of Myanmar Art and Culture, together to show the inner expressions of the Myanmar people.A. The past Period c. 1100 BC to 200 BCThe Pre historic Period in Burma is known from a expressage number of excavations that were carried out in selected rock shelters, caves and other sites along the middle course of the Irrawaddy River. Since Burma even at once is sparsely populated, it would not be surprising to find that early cultures in Burma developed in isolation. However, the artifacts reveal in these digs resemble those in other parts of Southeast Asia indicating that there was meaningful soupcon over wide areas at a very early date, and the arts in Burma were not isolated even a t this early time. This pattern of intra-area contact move into the later historical periods. Since there are no written records for this early period, we know little about religious practice. However, since the artifacts that have been discovered adapt to those used in olive-sized-scale societies for animist rituals, it might be presupposed that these early societies practiced a slip of Animism.Therefore, Animism, and artifacts associated with its practice, will be discussed as a bridge between this most remote period and contemporaneousanimist art forms. B. The Pre-Pagan Period Mon and Pyu Urbanism c. 2nd BC 8 AD During the Pre-Pagan Period there is goodish evidence that the lowland peoples in Burma adopted ideas from India as indicated by a few standing structures, legion(predicate) excavated foundations, and a wide array of artifacts. These materials were produced for worship in Animism and Hinduism as well as Mahayanna and Theravada Buddhism. The first cities have th e appearance _or_ semblance throughout central Burma and were directly dependent on extensive irrigation systems. Thus begins the parmountcy of the central region of Burma that continues until the present.The cities supervene in well-planned forms that are a combination of indigenous and Indian concepts. Within these cities, the first buildings in non-perishable materials were constructed. These brick and plaster buildings were all used for religious purposes whereas secular buildings, even palaces, act to be made of perishable materials until the modern era. This dichotomy between the type of material used for construction and the use of the building generally continued through all later developmental periods.Also, at this time, a particular interest develops for two types of religious structures the Buddhist stupa and the Buddhist temple. Brick foundations of what were most probably the first monasteries are dated to this period. Although the number of images from the Pre-Paga n Period is limited, the mixture of styles and subject matter is generally broader than in later periods. The Mon and Pyu languages are written using alphabets and concepts adopted from India. A Burmese calendar was later created that begins with the fall of the Pyu dynasty in 836 AD. C. The Pagan Period 11th to 13th centuries authorized forms emerged during the Pagan Period for many aspects of Burmese culture, including the economic, political, religious, social, and artistic. These forms were the models used by later Burmese dynasties to create freshly but related forms, often through slightly modifing their content. Classic architectural forms emerged as embodied in the Shwezigon Stupa and the Ananda Temple that were repeatedly copied by later donors. The styles of sculpture from the Pagan Period were also periodically revived.Theravada Buddhism became the pet faith and thereafter remained the predominant Burmese religion. The first examples of figurative painting occur on te mple walls and employ the Pala style of India and Nepal. Although Pagan ceasedto be the political capital of Burma in the 13th century, the city continued to be a respected religious center and many later monarchs returned to Pagan to endow bracing foundations or refurbish old ones. D. The Post Pagan Period -14th to 20th centuriesAfter the decline of Pagan, Burma disjointed into a number of small kingdoms that looked back to Pagan for validation and for artistic inspiration. None of these kingdoms rivaled the earlier period in art and architectural accomplishments and all can be seen as Pagan writ small. Pagan buildings were proudly copied, but often with significant modifications. The stupa became the most favored religious building and temples were rarely built. Wooden monasteries constructed on a raised wooden platform largely replaced the brick and stucco monasteries of Pagan.A number of Burmese styles arose, particularly in sculpture, as a result of fewer contacts with India due to the Muslim invasions there and the Muslim destruction of Buddhist religious sites. Burmese styles of painting develop and in the nineteenth century borrow pictorial devices from the West. The Mandalay Style that arose during the latter half of the Post Pagan Period became dominant in central Burma and has continued until the present as the preferred style in Burmese art.

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